Understanding Infertility – Symptoms and Causes

Infertility happens when a couple has been trying to conceive for more than 12 months without using any birth control methods. One couple cannot maintain a pregnancy for nine months, or the other cannot contribute to conception.

Most of the 60 million couples diagnosed with infertility are from developing countries. Obesity, poor diet, excessive stress, late marriage, frequent abortion, drinking, and smoking are all factors that contribute to secondary infertility and poor reproductive outcomes.


Not being able to get pregnant is the main sign of infertility. There might not be any other evident signs. Infertile women can experience irregular or nonexistent menstrual cycles. Infertile men occasionally show symptoms of hormone imbalances, such as changes in hair growth or sex patterns.

Women’s Signs of Potential Infertility

Changes in the menstrual cycle and ovulation in women may be signs of an illness connected to infertility. These signs include:

  • Abnormal menstruation cycles. There is more or less bleeding than usual.
  • Irregular time frames. Each month, the amount of days between each menstruation fluctuates.
  • No commas. You’ve never had a period, or your cycles have stopped completely.
  • Traumatic times. Cramps, pelvic pain, and back pain can all occur.

Hormonal issues can occasionally bring on infertility in women. In this situation, other symptoms could be:

  • Skin modifications, including increased acne
  • alterations in sexual desire and drive
  • Lip, chest, and chin dark hair development
  • hair loss or thinning hair
  • adding pounds

The symptoms of different conditions connected to women’s infertility vary.

Men’s Signs of Potential Infertility

Men’s symptoms of infertility can be hazy. Until a man tries to get pregnant, they might go unnoticed.

The cause of infertility will affect the symptoms. They may consist of:

  • Changes in hair growth
  • Variations in sexual aversion
  • Testicular discomfort, a bulge, or oedema
  • Erectile dysfunction and ejaculatory issues
  • Tiny, firm testicles

With or without therapy, most couples will eventually become pregnant.

Female infertility causes

  1. Pelvic surgery, the infection might be a possibility.
  2. Cancers of the reproductive system, radiation, and chemotherapy
  3. Menopause begins before the age of 40
  4. Endometriosis
  5. The fallopian tube is inflamed.
  6. Tumours or anomalies in the cervical region
  7. Thyroid, irregular menstrual cycle, food disorders, and excessive exercise are all symptoms of thyroid disease.

Male Fertility Causes

  1. Radiation and chemotherapy have been shown to hurt sperm production.
  2. Exposure to external environmental elements such as saunas or hot tubs regularly.
  3. Overuse of tobacco, marijuana, alcohol, and anabolic steroids.
  4. High blood pressure and depression
  5. Premature ejaculation, sexually transmitted disease, or some hereditary conditions are all causes of premature ejaculation.
  6. Testicular obstruction or injury to the reproductive organs causes problems with sperm delivery.
  7. Diabetes, HIV, mumps, chlamydia, and gonorrhea are genetic abnormalities.
  8. Abnormal Sperm production 

Most common causes of infertility in both men and women

Women have difficulty conceiving, and men are also affected by male fertility issues. Many of these risk factors for infertility concerns have been identified in men and women. They are as follows:

  • Overweight/Underweight

An inactive lifestyle (being overweight, having eating disorders, or following calorie-restrictive diets) makes it more difficult to conceive. Indulging in overweight activities affects sperm counts in men, resulting in male fertility concerns.

  • Age

Women produce low-quality eggs after age 37, making it more difficult to conceive, while men become less fertile after age 40.

  • Use of Tobacco and Alcohol

Tobacco diminishes the likelihood of conception in women, while alcohol directly leads to infertility diagnosis in women.

When Should You Visit a Doctor?

Consult your doctor if you are under 35 and have been trying to conceive for a year without success. After six months of trying, women over 35 should visit their doctor.

You can get tested for blood, urine, and imaging conditions to figure out why you’re having problems getting pregnant. To determine a man’s sperm count and the sperm’s general health, a sperm analysis can be performed.

Your doctor may recommend a reproductive endocrinologist. That medical professional focuses on infertility. Your symptoms and your medical background will be questioned about infertility.

Note down the following details before your next meeting with a doctor and bring them with you:

  • Your whole pharmaceutical medication includes prescription, over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, minerals, and supplements.
  • How frequently you engage in unprotected sex, how long you’ve been trying, and the date of your most recent pregnancy attempt
  • Body modifications or additional symptoms you’ve seen
  • Dates of previous surgeries or treatments, particularly those involving the reproductive system.
  • Have you ever undergone radiation or chemotherapy?
  • How much you smoke, how much you drink, and whether you take any illegal drugs
  • past sexually transmitted illness history (STDs)
  • Any hereditary problem or long-term disease in you or your families, such as diabetes or thyroid disease

Be aware of your body. Any time you notice a symptom, let your doctor know. Your chances of becoming pregnant may increase if an infertility issue is detected early.